List of combinations

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MaxV
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List of combinations

Post by MaxV » Mon Jan 23, 2017 4:25 pm

Hello,
I need to list all combinations, how can I do it?
For example: numbers 1 to 10, list all combinations of 3 numbers:
1,2,3
2,3,4
3,5,6
1,3,4
... and so on.
The formula to get how many combinations are is: Image
in this example is: (10*9*8*7*6*5*4*3*2*1)/((7*6*5*4*3*2*1)*(3*2*1)) = 3628800 / 30240 = 120; so I know that the example list is made of 120 lines.
How can I list all lines?
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sritcp
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Re: List of combinations

Post by sritcp » Mon Jan 23, 2017 5:26 pm

My suggestion would be to

i) get the permutations first (straightforward using repeat loops); then

ii) get the combinations by removing the ordered variants of the same combination.

E.g., we have k! permutations for the combination 1,2,3; namely,
1,2,3
1,3,2
2,1,3
2,3,1
3,1,2
3,2,1
It should be easy to identify and remove them.

Regards,
Sri

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Re: List of combinations

Post by [-hh] » Mon Jan 23, 2017 5:34 pm

Code: Select all

on mouseUp
   put 0 into nb
   repeat with x=1 to 10
      repeat with y=x+1 to 10
         repeat with z=y+1 to 10
            add 1 to nb -- nb is just for info
            put cr & nb & ": " & (x,y,z) after s
         end repeat
      end repeat
   end repeat
   put line 2 to -1 of s into fld 1
end mouseUp
Here are 3 elements taken out of 10.
This is also a listing for n=10 and k=7, the listing is then the 3 elements that are not taken.
In general combinations(n,k) = combinations(n,n-k)

For recursive building of such lists you could use the logic of Pascal's triangle:
combinations(n-1,k) + combinations(n-1,k-1) = combinations(n,k) for 0 < k < n.
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Re: List of combinations

Post by dunbarx » Mon Jan 23, 2017 5:42 pm

Here is a function from the masterLibrary:

Code: Select all

function combinatorial n 
   put the cursor into tCursor
   put 1 into tCursorCtr
   if n >= 15 then -- make sure you know what you're in for!
      answer n && "objects will result in" && (2^15 -1) && "subsets" with "Continue" or "Cancel"
      if it is "Cancel" then exit to top
   end if
   put 1 into subsetsVar -- initialize variable
   repeat until x = n -- this repeats (2^n - 2) times, which is one less than the numer of possible subsets
      Add 1 to tCursorCtr
      if tCursorCtr > 5000 then
         set the cursor to busy
         put 0 into tCursorCtr
      end if
      put the last line in subsetsVar into x -- each subset is used as input to compute the next subset
      put the number of items in x into noItems
      if item noItems of x = n then
         add 1 to item (noItems -1) of x -- increment 2nd to last item if last item = n
         delete the last item of x -- get rid of last item if it = n
         put return & x after subsetsVar -- add another subset to list of subsets
      else
         put ((item noItems of x) + 1) into item (noItems + 1) of x -- increment last item
         put return & x after subsetsVar -- add another subset to list of subsets
      end if
   end repeat
   set the cursor to tCursor
   return subsetsVar -- return the list of all possible subsets
end combinatorial
Try running this with, say, "4".Once you get the output, you can associate each integer with an item in your list of values. You can then sort that list by length, and filter out all but those results that contain three (or any number) of terms.

Craig

MaxV
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Re: List of combinations

Post by MaxV » Mon Jan 23, 2017 6:25 pm

dunbarx wrote:Here is a function from the masterLibrary:
Dunbarx,
what is the masterLibrary?
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Re: List of combinations

Post by dunbarx » Mon Jan 23, 2017 8:44 pm


MaxV
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Re: List of combinations

Post by MaxV » Tue Jan 24, 2017 1:23 pm

Thank you so much dunbarx, however [-hh] solution is faster (but I needed to search for internet to understand it :oops: :lol: ).

However now I have more questions:
  1. how can I transform it in a function like combinations(n,k)?
  2. this repeat loops can be paralleled, because it doesn't need the result of the previous cycle, so how can I parallelize it?
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Re: List of combinations

Post by dunbarx » Tue Jan 24, 2017 3:36 pm

Hermann.

Help Max. You are the one to do it.

Craig

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Re: List of combinations

Post by [-hh] » Tue Jan 24, 2017 8:50 pm

Factorials are 'exploding' numbers. So, if n is not too large, say n <= 21, and k <= n/2,
using numOfComb(n,k) = numOfComb(n,n-k),
the following recursion runs pretty fast. It's a "generalization" of the (n=10,k=3) example above.

Code: Select all

-- usage examples: get combin(n,k) or get combin(42,4)
-- ordering of the ouput is lexicographical
function combin n,k,r,j,c
   if r is empty then put 1 into r --> r admits only nums above the current
   if j is empty then put 1 into j --> j counts from 1 up to k
   repeat with i=r to n
      put i into item j of c
      -- we now reduce to the "rest": the nums > i and <=n
      if j < k then put combin(n,k,i+1,j+1,c) after s0
      else put cr & c after s0
   end repeat
   return s0
end combin
Here is a code for testing speed. If n > 42 or (n > 21 and k > 4), the result is not written to a field but to a file.
Timing is for the algorithm only, not for field- or file-writing.

Code: Select all

on mouseUp
   set the recursionLimit to 50000000
   put the millisecs into m1
   lock screen; lock messages
   set cursor to watch
   put 42 into n; put 4 into k ## <--------------
   if k < 1 or k > n then exit mouseUp
   if n > 42 or (n > 21 and k > 4) then
      put the effective filename of this stack into f
      set itemdel to slash
      put "out(" &k& "of" &n& ").txt" into last item of f
      set itemdel to comma
   end if
   put the millisecs into m1
   put combin(n,k) into cc -- result has a leading cr
   put (-1+the num of lines of cc) into n0
   put the millisecs - m1 into m2
   put the internet date &cr& \
         m2 & " ms for " & n0 & " combinations " & \
         "(" & k & " out of " & n & ")" into nfo
   if not (n > 42 or (n > 21 and k > 4)) then put nfo & cc into fld 1
   else
      put nfo &cr& "written to " & f into fld 1
      put n0 & cc into url("file:"&f)
   end if
   unlock screen; unlock messages
end mouseUp
Once again the differences over the LiveCode version are interesting.
The output string for 4_of_100 = 3921225 combinations has 45.8 MByte.

    LC 6.7.11:    6 seconds for 4_of_100 [comparison base]
    LC 7.1.4:    21 seconds for 4_of_100 [factor 3.5 compared to LC 6]
    LC 8.1.3:    21 seconds for 4_of_100 [factor 3.5 compared to LC 6]
    LC 9.0.0:    33 seconds for 4_of_100 [factor 5.5 compared to LC 6]

Absolute times are from a medium fast machine (Mac mini, 2.5 GHz), rounded down, roughly.
I don't know the reason for these extreme differences, which are not necessarily present for some other examples.

== Edit. Adjusted the "write to field-/write to file-switch".
Last edited by [-hh] on Wed Jan 25, 2017 8:28 am, edited 1 time in total.
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[-hh]
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Re: List of combinations

Post by [-hh] » Wed Jan 25, 2017 7:45 am

Anticipating your next question:
It may be also interesting to look at an "inductive law n--> n+1" for that.

For the number of combinations we have (visualized by Pascal's triangle)
[1] numOfCombs(n,k-1) + numOfCombs(n,k) = numOfCombs(n+1,k) for 0 < k <= n.

This is an "inductive law n->n+1", i.e. if you have computed the number of combinations for a fixed n and all k <= n, then you can get the number of combinations for all k <= n+1 from that.
Recall the case k-1=0 is the one possibility to take no element out of n.

For the combinations we have similarly an "inductive law n->n+1":
[2] combin*(n,k-1) &cr& combin(n,k) = combin(n+1,k) for 0 < k <= n.


Here combin*(n,k-1) is built as follows:
Take combin(n,k), without the leading cr, and put comma & n+1 after each line of it.

Recall the case k-1=0 is the one combination to take no element out of n, an empty line.

That is, if you have computed the combinations for a fixed n and all k <= n, then you can get the combinations for all k <= n+1 from that.
But the result of this induction is no longer sorted lexicographically. One way to solve this is to sort it after concatenating:

Code: Select all

 -- lexicographic ordering of lines with k items
repeat with j=k down to 1
      sort rslt numeric by item j of each
 end repeat
The formula [2] above is intuitively clear:
You have everything computed for a fixed n and now the new element n+1 appears.
This changes the combinations for taking k out of n+1 as follows.
First we have combin(n,k), that is the combinations of taking k and n+1 is not included, what remains unchanged.
Then we have additionally the combinations of taking k and n+1 is included.
That is, writing it out sorted, take k-1 out of the first n and then additionally n+1, that is the list combin*(n,k-1) as described above.

This "inductive law" allows (theoretically, using 'string'-addition) to compute the combination lists for _any_ n (depending on hardware limits only), while the recursive formula has a platform dependent limit for n from the recursion depth.

[But remember the huge sizes of the files.
Using decimal representation in bytes combin(100,4) has 3921225 lines and length 45799908 Bytes, combin(100,3) has 161700 combinations and length 1416492 Bytes,
so combin(101,4) has 3921225+161700=4082925 combinations and length 45799908+1416492+4*161700 = 47863200 Bytes]
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[-hh]
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Re: List of combinations

Post by [-hh] » Wed Jan 25, 2017 12:29 pm

I was asked to script the "inductive law" for building lists of combinations.
So here it is.
The inductive start (n=1) is in the buildcombiBib script below.
The inductive step "n -> n+1":

Code: Select all

-- in mouseUp set the local variables f0 and l0:
-- put the effective filename of this stack into f0
-- put "%03d" into l0 -- length 3, leading zeros: for outfile()
on inductiveCombi i -- step "i-1 -> i"
   repeat with j = 1 to i-1
      put url ("file:" &  outfile(j-1,i-1)) into s1 -- k=j-1, n=i-1
      put url ("file:" &  outfile(  j,i-1)) into s2 -- k=j  , n=i-1
      put empty into s3
      repeat for each line L in s1
         if L is empty then put cr & i after s3
         else put cr & L & comma & i after s3
      end repeat
      put s2 & s3 into s4
      set itemdel to comma
      repeat with m = j down to 1
         sort s4 numeric by item m of each
      end repeat
      put s4 into url ("file:" & outfile(j,i)) -- k=j, n=i
   end repeat
   -- k=0 and k=i for n=i
   put cr into url("file:" & outfile(0,i))
   put url ("file:" & outfile(i-1,i-1)) &comma& i \
         into url("file:" & outfile(i,i))
end inductiveCombi

function outfile k,n
   put f0 into f1
   set itemdel to slash
   put "out(" &format(l0,k)& "of" &format(l0,n)& ").txt" into last item of f1
   set itemdel to comma
   return f1
end outfile
You can build with that "inductively" files of lists of combinations(n,k)
for increasing n and all k with 0 <= k <= n, starting from n=1.

Code: Select all

-- in mouseUp set the local variables f0 and l0:
-- put the effective filename of this stack into f0
-- put "%03d" into l0 -- length 3, leading zeros: for outfile()
on buildcombiBib n2
   ## n2 = 10 needs 50 millisecs for 32 KByte data (65 files)
   ## n2 = 16 needs 500 millisecs for 2.9 MByte data (152 files)
   ## n2 = 21 needs 18 seconds for 107 MByte data (252 files)
   ## n2 = 24 needs 3 minutes for 1 GByte data (325 files)
   put the millisecs into m1
   lock screen; lock messages
   set cursor to watch
   -- inductive start -- i=1
   put cr  into url ("file:"& outfile(0,1)) -- k=0, i=1
   put "1" into url ("file:"& outfile(1,1)) -- k=1, i=1
   -- inductive build -- repeatedly step "i-1 -> i"
   repeat with i = 2 to n2
      inductiveCombi i
   end repeat
   put n2 & ": " & (the millisecs - m1) into fld "out2"
   unlock screen; unlock messages
end buildcombiBib
A button script example for building a "bib" for n from 1 up to a value n2
or building another single step on top of such a "bib" is here.

Code: Select all

local f0, l0

on mouseUp
   put the effective filename of this stack into f0
   put "%03d" into l0 -- length 3, leading zeros: for outfile()
   buildcombiBib 16 -- needs 500 ms
   put the millisecs into m1
   inductiveCombi 16 -- last step on top of the 15-bib needs 150 ms 
   put cr & "n=16: " & the millisecs -m1 after fld "out2"
   put the millisecs into m1
   inductiveCombi 17 -- another step on top of the 16-bib needs 350 ms
   put cr & "n=17: " & the millisecs -m1 after fld "out2"
end mouseUp
Timing denoted in the scripts is from a Mac min 2.5 GHz using **LC 6.7.11** on MacOS 10.12.

I wrote most of it just out of my head, tested a few times, compared some to "direct" (recursive) computations, couldn't find an error.

Now have fun!
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Re: List of combinations

Post by dunbarx » Wed Jan 25, 2017 3:15 pm

I wrote most of it just out of my head
That's our Hermann. :D

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Re: List of combinations

Post by FourthWorld » Wed Jan 25, 2017 6:39 pm

Why have file I/O inside the loop?
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Re: List of combinations

Post by SparkOut » Wed Jan 25, 2017 8:55 pm


[-hh]
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Re: List of combinations

Post by [-hh] » Thu Jan 26, 2017 2:39 am

@FourthWorld
FourthWorld wrote:Why have file I/O inside the loop?
When computing combin(n,k) for k=ceil(n/2) you are, roughly, doubling the size of combin(n-1,k) for k=ceil((n-1)/2).

combin(19,10) has size 2.3 Mbyte
combin(20,10) has size 4.7 MByte
combin(21,11) has size 10.0 MByte
combin(22,11) has size 20.1 MByte

Around (n=32,k=16) you will have crossed 1 GByte size for combin(n,k).
And combin(33,17) is built using combin(32,17) and combin(32,16) ...
And combin(42,21) alone may go close to the limit of your hardware resources (has 538257874440 lines of roughly length 100 each).

If you go high enough, this I/O must be even splitted into parts of files inside the repeat. And other 'compressed' methods of data storing (not decimal bytewise but bitwise) should come in.

Of course the scripts above can/should be optimized regarding I/O, depending on (n,k).
You are the one for that!
Would be an application of several threads where you gave effective receipts for i/o of big data sizes.

@SparkOut
SparkOut wrote:Fascinating reading here: http://newsletters.livecode.com/march/i ... etter4.php
Thanks for that link, one of the famous articles of this author. The linked one is for *permutations* (math term) and the word 'combination' there is not using the math term, rather means 'combining/concatenating letters'.
For *combinations* (math term), what the OP wants, you have to take only such permutations that obey one _fixed_ sort order (for example numeric ascending).
For this math term see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combination .

===
There are a lot of routines for that problem in the folks, in other languages. And a lot of people are asking for pseudo-code to understand optimized algorithms. That's why I tried to make our own thing in LiveCode:
We can write the code in such a way that it's understandable even for non-LiveCoders, it is (nearly) its own pseudo-code.
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